Failing Wooden Bay Window Beam

Sagging Masonry Above Bay Window – Failed Timber Bressumer Beam

London Bay Window Beam Replacement 225x300 - Failing Wooden Bay Window Beam

To protect their investment, the new owners of this period home in South West London called in AWT to address the structural issues as part of their renovation work. The bay window structural problems had progressed to the point that failure and collapse of the front of the property was a real danger.

Unlike traditional builders, AWT can provide targeted, long-term structural repairs without rebuilding work.

AWT can provide cost-effective repairs for severe structural problems including failed bay window support beams. To learn more about how AWT can help with structural defects in bay windows read our Bay Window Structural Repair FAQs.

The Structural Problem

Without urgent structural repairs, the bay window and masonry above would collapse. As well as the high cost of reconstruction,  it would destroy period features and likely reduce the property’s market value.

The seriousness of the structural defect was most easily seen in the interior of the property. Like many properties of this era, the masonry above the bay window was supported by a timber beam. This Bressumer beam had failed, causing the structure above to sag in the middle. The characteristic V-shaped slope of the floor, windows and masonry can be seen in the photos above.

Cracks had formed in the first-floor brickwork and window arches. Radiating cracks had also opened up in the plaster and finishes around the bay window. The front single-storey bay has started to pull away from the building. The timber Bressumer lintel above the bay window was soft, over-stressed and deformed.

The Structural Solution

The structural repair had 3 main objectives:

  • Realigning the masonry
  • Replacing the timber lintel
  • Reinforcing the structure

The structural repair work included:

  • installing temporary supports
  • using AWT-designed hydraulic jacking system to realign the structure
  • removing the failed timber Bressumer beam
  • installing concrete pad stones
  • replacing the timber beam with a metal lintel
  • removing the temporary supports
  • introducing Bed Joint Reinforcement-Beaming
  • repairing  lintel brickwork arches
  • installing lateral restraints
  • injecting grout ties
  • repairing brickwork and concrete

The specialist structural repairs reinstated the uniformity of the masonry,  redistributed the upper-storey loads and restrained any diagonal cracking and bulging tendencies.

The exterior of the property was left ready for repainting and the interior was left ready for the reinstatement of all disturbed finishes around the bay window area i.e. plaster boarding, plastering, flooring, skirting etc. and decorating.

Action Wall Ties are specialist structural repair contractors with the knowledge and experience required to repair period properties with severe structural defects, such as failed bay window support beams.  AWT work with property owners, structural engineers, architects, project managers and local authorities on large and small projects.

AWT are available across London, Kent, Essex, Surrey and Sussex. To arrange a survey or to discuss project details, please use our contact form, email us or call us on 01227 721 255.

Collapsing Period Bay Window in East London

Repairs to Collapsing Bay Window with Terracotta Bricks

Preserving period features has a significant impact on maintaining the value of a property. Period bay windows and decorative architectural features all contribute to the desirability of a property. To find how AWT can help with structural defects in bay windows read our Bay Window Structural Repair FAQs.

AWT was called in to save the front of this period property in Waltham Forest, Greater London, from collapse. The Victorian/Edwardian 2-storey canted bay window, with original decorative terracotta blockwork, was so structurally weak that temporary supports were put in place to prevent the masonry from collapsing.

Traditional building techniques would have required deconstruction and rebuilding of the bay window brickwork. This would likely have damaged the fragile terracotta brickwork that decorates the property. Loss of period features due to structural defects or inappropriate repairs can severely reduce a property’s value.

simple horizontal - Collapsing Period Bay Window in East London
bay failing brick - Collapsing Period Bay Window in East London
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failing bay - Collapsing Period Bay Window in East London
unstable bay - Collapsing Period Bay Window in East London
Failing Bay Columns
Bay Column Gaps
Collapsing Bay
Cracked Bay Brick
Failing 2-Storey Bay
Unstable Bay Window
 
simple horizontal - Collapsing Period Bay Window in East London

The Structural Problem

This Edwardian/Victorian-era terraced home in East London, E11 had severe structural issues with the bay window.

The bay window defects included:

  • Unstable, collapsing brickwork
  • Clearly visible bowing of bay window columns
  • Gaps around windows
  • Spreading and dropping brickwork arches
  • Outward movement of the masonry
  • Cracked brickwork
  • Distorted brickwork

As seen from the photos, previous attempts to repair the problem had failed because they only addressed the symptoms rather than the cause of the defects.

The long-term structural problems resulted from ageing, ineffective support from the unrestrained bowing brickwork columns and spreading/dropped brickwork arches. This combination of structural defects had left the structure reliant on temporary supports to prevent collapse.

The Structural Repair Solution

Masonry Realignment:

AWT designed realigning cramping equipment and hydraulic powered jacks were used to realign the arches and brickwork spandrel panel.

simple horizontal - Collapsing Period Bay Window in East London
repair bay brick - Collapsing Period Bay Window in East London
repaired bay terracotta - Collapsing Period Bay Window in East London
restored brick arch - Collapsing Period Bay Window in East London
terracotta bay window - Collapsing Period Bay Window in East London
repair brick arch - Collapsing Period Bay Window in East London
repaired brick arch - Collapsing Period Bay Window in East London
restored bay window - Collapsing Period Bay Window in East London
Bay Window Structural Repairs
Ornate Bay Repairs
Bay Window Repairs
Bay Repairs
Window Arch Repairs
Window Arch Repairs
Brick Arch Repairs
 
simple horizontal - Collapsing Period Bay Window in East London

Steel Reinforcement for Bay Window Columns:

After carefully deconstructing the bowing bay window columns, steel reinforcing spines were fitted between the window frames and the brick columns. Stainless steel retaining ties were built into the brickwork columns as they were rebuilt using the original bricks. The new mortar was matched to the colour and style of the original mortar.

 

simple horizontal - Collapsing Period Bay Window in East London
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Strengthening Bay Columns
Bay Columns- No Gaps!
Realigned Bay Columns
Realigned Bay Columns
Bay Column Repairs
 
simple horizontal - Collapsing Period Bay Window in East London

Masonry Reinforcement & Reconnection:

  • AWT installed rows of twin 8mm stainless steel corded joint reinforcement. This forms a deep masonry beam that adds tensile strength to the structure.
  • Using specialist diamond drilling techniques, AWT installed grouted helical bars to reconnect the bay window masonry with the main elevational brickwork. This restrains the bay window brickwork and prevents it from leaning.
  • Stainless steel lateral restraints were installed in the timber joists and were resin-bonded to the masonry.
The specialist structural repairs were designed to redistribute the upper storey loads to those parts of the supporting structure below which are best able to carry them, while at the same time assisting in restraining diagonal cracking and bulging tendencies. It also added tensile strength thus reinstating the brickwork’s integrity.

After Bay Window Structural Repairs:

As can be seen from the photos, AWT’s structural repairs preserved the attractive period features of the property. AWT’s specialist structural repair techniques also allowed the owners to avoid slow, disruptive and costly rebuilding work.

Action Wall Ties are specialist structural repair contractors with the skills and experience required to repair period properties, including period properties with severe structural defects.  AWT work along with property owners, structural engineers, architects, project managers and local authorities on large and small projects.

AWT are available in London, Kent, Essex, Surrey and Sussex. To arrange a survey or to discuss project details, please use our contact form, email us or call us on 01227 721 255.

Distorted Bay Window With Ornate Terracotta Blockwork

Structural Repairs for Bay Window with Ornate Terracotta Blocks

cracks bay period terracotta - Distorted Bay Window With Ornate Terracotta Blockwork

The exterior of this Victorian/Edwardian property in the London Borough of Lewisham, SW13, has a number of beautiful period features.  The ground floor bay window columns have ornate capitals, the bay window brickwork includes terracotta blocks below the 1st floor bay and the roofline has decorative terracotta blockwork below the eaves.

In common with many properties of this age, a combination of ageing and ineffective restraining of the bay window columns, together with de-bonding of the main elevational brickwork, was allowing the bay window to lean outward. This was also opening up large cracks in the surrounding brickwork. Without structural repairs to restrain and reinforce the masonry, it will fail and lead to the collapse of the structure above.

debonded brickwork bulges 1.3 - Distorted Bay Window With Ornate Terracotta Blockwork

Read our frequently asked questions about bay window structural repairs.

The Structural Problem

This period home in Inner London was at risk of structural collapse. Protecting the fragile terracotta blocks and eave brackets was a key consideration in designing the structural repair plan.

terracotta blocks eave brackets - Distorted Bay Window With Ornate Terracotta Blockwork

Some of the structural problems included:

  • Large cracks around the bay window
  • Clearly visible outward leaning of the first floor bay window masonry columns and lintels
  • Significant outward movement of the masonry lintel to the left side main elevational wall
  • Significant movement of all the terracotta ornate blocks below the soffits
  • Fragile, period terracotta blocks & knee braces (eave brackets) required delicate handling

 

leaning bay window gaps - Distorted Bay Window With Ornate Terracotta Blockwork

AWT’s repairs were designed to target the root cause of the structural failings. Due to AWT’s specialist knowledge and equipment, demolishing and rebuilding the bay window was not required.  AWT used bespoke drilling jigs to install fixings within the masonry to restore structural integrity without damage to the period features, especially the fragile terracotta blocks.

The Structural Repair Solution

AWT’s specialist structural repair tools allow the masonry to be gently moved back to its correct alignment. As shown in the photo below, custom-made drilling equipment allows the installation of fixings within the masonry with minimal impact on the facade of the property. This redistributes the upper-storey loads and restrains the brickwork to prevent cracking and bulging. AWT’s specialist repairs were designed to realign and restore the masonry without damaging or replacing the fragile terracotta blocks.

restoration terracotta block bay window - Distorted Bay Window With Ornate Terracotta Blockwork

The first step was to bring the masonry back in line by:

  • Installation of temporary supports
  • Intrusive inspection of masonry components that appear to be of solid masonry sections but could be nominal thickness components backed with timber framework, amending repair plan as necessary
  • Careful removal of dislodged ornate terracotta blockwork and knees (aka knee braces or eave brackets)
  • Set up AWT designed realigning cramping equipment
  • Deployment of specialist hydraulic jacks to realign the bay window masonry and elevational brickwork

The structure of the property was then strengthened by the installation of high quality specialist fixings:

  • Long diamond drilled grouted ties
  • Lateral restraints
  • Grout injection ties
  • Resin bonded ties

Finally, the finishing touches were added to restore the period beauty of the property:

  • Reinstate the terracotta ornate blockwork
  • Repair masonry pillars and cills with Monolevel FC anti-carbonation cosmetic grade mortar
  • Replace cracked bricks and mortar ensuring a suitable colour match

The repaired masonry elements were left ready for repainting. No external fixings were required – leaving the period features of the property to be enjoyed for years to come.

masonry brickwork repairs inner london - Distorted Bay Window With Ornate Terracotta Blockwork

Action Wall Ties are specialist structural repair contractors with the skills required to realign and strengthen leaning bay window masonry including period and heritage properties with fragile or ornate features of brickwork, terracotta stone/masonry elements and plaster stucco works. AWT work along with property owners, architects, project managers and local authorities on large and small projects.

AWT are available in Kent, London, Essex, Surrey and Sussex. To arrange a survey or to discuss project details, please use our contact form, email us or call us on 01227 721 255.

Failing Bay During Window Replacement

Bay Window Repairs During Fitting of New Windows

This period property in Southfields, South West London had failing bay window masonry. The old sash windows had been removed but fitting of the new windows revealed the bay window was unstable and out of alignment. Without professional structural repairs this would result in the collapse of the bay window masonry.

SW London Bay Repairs - Failing Bay During Window Replacement

The Structural Problem

As with many Victorian/Edwardian properties, issues with the bay windows became apparent during the fitting of replacement windows. New box sash windows were being installed but the surrounding masonry was clearly out of alignment. Repairs were necessary before the replacement window work could be fully completed.

This property in London, SW18, had visible cracking and dropping to the front bay window masonry. The bay had lost the internal brickwork support during the removal of the old box sash windows. Cracking of the first floor masonry lintel components and rendered brickwork were clearly visible. The original internal supports at the head of the bay window structure had been removed together with the original box sash windows.

The combination of inadequate restraining, ageing and the removal of the structural supports to the first floor during the replacement of the original window frames left the bay window unstable. Without suitable structural repairs the bay window was in danger of collapse.

The Structural Repair Solution

To reinstate stability, the bay window structure required the internal supports to be reinstated plus reinforcement of the masonry. Temporary supports were installed to the underside of the first floor front bay window masonry lintel. All the debris was removed from the crack and the lintel was lifted into a more level line with the adjacent brickwork.

 

Bed joint reinforcement beaming, grout tie injection, resin bonded ties, steel lintels and columns and some masonry repairs were all required. The formation of continuous beams within the existing masonry redistributed the upper storey loads to the supporting structure below while also assisting in restraining diagonal cracking and bulging tendencies. A bespoke steel box lintel frame supported on steel box columns was also fixed to the inside of the masonry columns.

The specialist techniques used by Action Wall Ties installed all the stainless steel fixings within the masonry leaving no visible fixings. Once the area had been redecorated the bay window looked as good as new.

AWT provide cost effective structural repairs for a wide range of structural faults including bay window reinforcement, realignment and lintel repairs. We operate not only in SW London but across the whole of London and the South East of England.

Read our frequently asked questions about bay window structural repairs.

To book a time for one of our surveyors to visit your property or to discuss your requirements, call us today on 01227 721255, email us at enquiries@actionwallties.co.uk or use our contact form to get in touch.

Distorted Columns & Lintels

Failing Bay Window Columns & Lintels

The charming bay window of this period property in Kensal Green, North West London was at risk of collapse due to failing lintels and stonework columns following the addition of a loft conversion.

The Structural Problem

The structural problems of this period property in London, NW10 were clearly visible. There was significant outward rotation of the masonry columns and lintels around the bay window. The structural issues had become more noticeable following the addition of a loft conversion and the installation of new double glazed windows.

The survey by AWT revealed that if the columns and lintels were not restrained and reinforced it would result in the failure of the bay window masonry. Such a serious defect required specialist structural repairs to avoid costly and disruptive rebuilding of the bay window.

The seriousness of the problem can be seem by how far the bay window masonry was leaning away from the main structure. The photo below shows that a gap of several centimeters had opened up between the new double glazing and the original stonework. This outward movement had also caused cracking in the surrounding brickwork.

The Structural Repair Solution

Avoid costly rebuilding work by calling in the experts. At best, traditional building methods would require the partial demolition and rebuilding of the bay window brickwork. This would be costly, disruptive and time consuming. At worst, homeowners may find they have paid for superficial, cosmetic repairs that do not solve the underlying structural issues.

The front of the house was stabilised by realigning, restraining and reinforcing the masonry using AWT’s specialist tools and techniques. This included:

  • Bed Joint Reinforcement
  • Lateral Restraints
  • Grout Tie Injection
  • Brickwork Repairs
  • Repairs to Ornate Columns
  • Repointing with Colour Matched Mortar

All of this was achieved without visible fixings or rebuilding work. The property was left simply requiring retouching of the paint in the disturbed areas to restore it to its original beauty.

AWT provide cost effective structural repairs for a wide range of structural issues including failing bay window columns and lintels. We operate not only in NW London but across the whole of London and the South East of England.

To book a time for one of our surveyors to visit your property or to discuss your requirements, call us today on 01227 721255, email us at enquiries@actionwallties.co.uk or use our contact form to get in touch.

Failing Timber Bressumer Lintel

Collapsing Bay & Gable

This period property in Hampstead, North West London had significant structural defects due to a failing Bressumer beam over the bay window area. The entire bay window area and the decorative gable wall above was leaning away from the main structure. Without professional structural repairs, this would result in the ultimate failure and collapse of the structure.

NW3 bressummer  - Failing Timber Bressumer Lintel
The Structural Problem

This front elevation of this home in London, NW3 was at risk of collapse. The first floor timber Bressumer beam over the bay window was failing, causing the downward movement of the central column of brickwork. This resulted in significant distortion to the window cills, lintels and first floor causing them to lean down to the centre of the building.

This type of horizontal wooden beam is known by a number of different names including:

  • Timber lintel
  • Bressumer or Bressummer
  • Breastsummer
  • Summer Beam
  • Various other spellings including Sommer, Somer, Sommier and Somier

This type of substantial wooden beam is often found in period properties over bay windows supporting the building above and above shop windows.

Victorian timber Bressumer beams over bay windows are generally over stressed compared to modern day standards. They are often affected by Creep with significant deflection together with further deterioration of the timber due to rot, damp, pest infestations etc. This can render the beam ineffective, deflecting the brickwork above, as well as the floor and the ceiling, requiring remediation. Another common cause of Bressumer beam problems is movement within the building’s structure which leaves the beam lacking adequate support.

Many of the common symptoms of a failing timber bay window beam were clearly visible including:

  1. Significant deflection of the beam
  2. Cracking, bulging brickwork above
  3. Masonry leaning away from the main elevation
  4. Cracking internal plaster
  5. Bulging ceilings
  6. Sloping floors
  7. Bowing of the main roof
  8. Distorted window cills
  9. Distorted window lintels

NW3 sloping floor - Failing Timber Bressumer Lintel

The entire bay window and the decorative gable brickwork was at risk of collapse. Traditional building methods would have required substantial and costly rebuilding work. Without AWT this would have required a major building project to de-construct the front elevation down to the Bressumer beam, replace the beam and thereafter rebuild the front first floor brickwork complete with window cill, lintels, refitting the windows and replacing internal plastering and finishings.

AWT was called in to stabilise the structure and preserve the period features. AWT’s specialist tools and structural repair skills enabled them to restore structural integrity without the need for rebuilding work, saving time, money and disruption.

The Structural Repair Solution

AWT used specialist equipment to realign the masonry, replace the wooden Bressumer lintel with a steel beam and install restraints. A lateral gable beam was also installed, the bulging gable wall was realigned and the structural integrity was restored.

Hampstead bressummer replacement - Failing Timber Bressumer Lintel

Hampstead bressummer realignment - Failing Timber Bressumer Lintel

Traditional building methods often provide a superficial, temporary solution. AWT’s structural repairs get to the root cause of the structural failings.

The structural repair works included:

  • Installation of temporary supports
  • Removal of failing Bressumer beam
  • Installation of new steel Bressumer lintel
  • Installation of lateral gable beam
  • Realignment of masonry by 70mm using hydraulic equipment
  • Bed Joint Reinforcement
  • Lateral restraints
  • Re-pointing disturbed areas with colour matched mortar

The remedial works restored the leaning masonry to its vertical alignment and restrained it from leaning outwards. The new steel Bressumer beam, lateral gable beam and the Bed Joint Reinforcement within the masonry restored the strength of the structure.

AWT provided a permanent solution to the structural defects without the need for expensive rebuilding work or visible fixings.

Satisfied Customers

The first photo below shows the re-plastered ceiling ready to be repainted and the second shows it after redecoration was completed. The beautiful period features of the house can be enjoyed in their former glory.

bressummer repaired - Failing Timber Bressumer Lintel

 

The home owners were delighted with how hassle free the process was and at the finished results.

Some of their comments were:

“You managed to diagnose pretty much what was wrong over the phone without having seen a photo i.e. Bressumer beam failure. We felt we were dealing with a professional company with a real idea of what we would need.”

“Your surveyor, Scott, was again reassuring. He gave the impression that whilst our house was of concern it was nothing compared to some properties you’ve repaired and it wouldn’t be beyond you.”

“Once we agreed to go ahead you were again very supportive and we felt comfortable and confident that we were in good hands.
The building team you that sent us were very reassuring and immediately had our confidence. The entire team were polite and professional and inspired confidence.”

“My elderly neighbour 2 doors away asked me when the works were starting and I was happy to tell her they were already finished….”

“We have a family friend that was very concerned with us walking blindly into a massive building program with no clue as to what we were doing and that it could all go horribly wrong.  I’ve been very pleased to let him know everything went better than expected and AWT completed the works quicker than we hoped. It’s all been a very positive experience.”

new bressummer beam - Failing Timber Bressumer Lintel

AWT provide cost effective structural repairs for a wide range of structural faults including failing wooden beams and lintels. We operate not only in NW London but across the whole of London and the South East of England.

Read our frequently asked questions about bay window structural repairs.

To book a time for one of our surveyors to visit your property or to discuss your requirements, call us today on 01227 721255, email us at enquiries@actionwallties.co.uk or use our contact form to get in touch.

Stone Arch & Bay Window Reinforcement

Reinforcement and Repair of Ornate Stone Arch & Bay

This end of terrace home in Walthamstow, East London had 2 structural issues. The stone entrance arch had significant cracking to the brickwork above and cracking in the internal walls. The ornate bay window was dropping and leaning outwards plus the stonework was cracking and spalling.

Walthamstow bay repairs  - Stone Arch & Bay Window Reinforcement

The Structural Problem

The period decorative features on this home in London, E17, were showing their age due to structural issues causing cracked brickwork and stonework. The structural movement had exacerbated the deterioration of the paintwork leaving the beautiful, ornate stonework looking shabby.

There was significant cracking above the stone entrance arch in both the external brickwork and the internal walls.

E17 stone arch repair - Stone Arch & Bay Window Reinforcement

The bay window had visibly shifted and caused cracks in the external brickwork as well as in the interior walls. The supporting columns and cills had become distorted.

These are common problems in such Victorian / Edwardian properties and are usually the result of ageing and inadequate restraining in the original building methods.

The AWT team also had to be prepared in case the masonry components weren’t solid masonry but simply a thin facade covering a timber frame.

 

The Structural Repair Solution

  • Installation of temporary supports & AWT designed cramping equipment
  • Realignment of masonry with hydraulic jacks
  • Precision diamond drilling & installation of stainless steel corded joint reinforcement.
  • Reconnecting the bay window brickwork to the main elevation by embedding grouted 8mm helical bars.
  • Installation of lateral restaints.
  • Repair damaged stonework with Flexcrete Monomix concrete repair mortar system.
  • Crack stitching work to cracked brickwork.
  • Cutting back damaged brick faces or resurfacing damaged bricks where possible using AWT methods.
  • Cutting out badly cracked bricks and replacing with colour matched yellow stock bricks.
  • Re-point disturbed areas with colour matched sand lime and cement mixture.

AWT provided an efficient, cost effective, permanent repair without the need for visible fixings. AWT have the tools and skills to remediate the root cause of these types of period property structural defects. AWT’s specialist fixings meant no rebuilding work was required and so disruption to the homeowner was kept to a minimum. The property was left ready for painting to restore it to its former glory.

E17 bay arch repairs - Stone Arch & Bay Window Reinforcement

Read our frequently asked questions about bay window structural repairs.

For a fast, effective solutions to stone arch and bay window structural problems contact AWT today. We provide professional solutions to a wide variety of structural issues for home owners across London, Kent, Surrey and Sussex. Contact us on 01227 721 255, or email us.

Repairing Gaps Around Bay Window Glazing and Distorted Gable Brickwork

Repairing Distorted Gable Brickwork & Large Gaps Around Bay Window Glazing.

The masonry of the bay window of this property in London E11 was leaning away from the main structure. Large gaps were opening up between the bay window frames and the double glazing units. Realignment of the sagging bay window plus reinforcing failing gable brickwork to restore structural integrity were required.

The skills of the AWT team allowed them to restore the structural integrity in a cost effective and efficient manner without any rebuilding or visible fixings.

Grove Green bay repairs - Repairing Gaps Around Bay Window Glazing and Distorted Gable Brickwork

The Structural Problem

This East London home had visible cracking in front bay window brickwork and stone lintels. Outward rotation of the first floor bay window was clearly visible. Large gaps had opened up between the bay window frame and the glazing. The cracking and distorting of the masonry bay had caused significant movement to the brickwork gable above.

Problems of this type are common in such Victorian / Edwardian properties and are usually the result of ageing and inadequate restraining in the original building methods.

The AWT also had to be prepared for the possibility that the masonry components might not be solid masonry but simply a thin facade covering a timber frame.

The Structural Repair Solution

East London Bay Window Repairs - Repairing Gaps Around Bay Window Glazing and Distorted Gable Brickwork

After the initial inspection, the AWT team conducted an intrusive survey by drilling carefully placed inspection holes and using an endoscope where necessary. This allowed them to determine that this property’s bay window was constructed using solid masonry elements.

The first element of the structural repairs required the installation temporary supports to the underside of the first floor bay window lintels. AWT designed realigning cramping equipment and hydraulic powered jacks were used to realign the columns and brickwork ready for reinforcing.

Specialist drills were used to introduce rows of 8mm stainless steel corded joint reinforcement fixings. This redistributed the upper storey load to the supporting structure below and restrained the diagonal cracking and bulging tendencies.

Precision drilling rigs were used to install helical stainless steel pins through the brick arch. Resin bonded stainless steel pins were used to reconnect the brickwork to the main body of the building.

Internal gable restraints were fixed in place. Stainless steel lateral restraints were installed directly into the timber joists and resin bonded to the masonry. This restored the structural integrity of distorted gable brickwork.

Any disturbed mortar was re-pointed with mortar matched for colour and texture to blend with the existing pointing.

Read our frequently asked questions about bay window structural repairs.

For a fast, effective solution to bay window structural problems contact AWT today. We provide professional solutions to a wide variety of structural problems for home owners across London, Kent, Surrey and Sussex. Contact us on 01227 721 255, or email us.

Bay Window with Severe Deterioration

Bay Window with Severe Deterioration

The brickwork of this mid-terraced Victorian/Edwardian era home in the Stratford, E11 area of London had reached a critical condition. The severe nature of the building’s defects required a combination of specialist structural repair techniques.

damaged bay - Bay Window with Severe Deterioration

The Structural Problem

Without urgent structural repairs, the bay window masonry of this period property would collapse. Symptoms of the severe masonry defects were:

  • Front bay windows visibly bowing outward
  • Severe deterioration of bricks in the bay window pillars
  • Crumbling, spalling bricks
  • Distorted cracked stonework
  • Cracking brickwork
  • Failing, spalled pointing
  • Cracked front entrance concrete step
  • Significant cracking and dropping of brick arch lintels

The problems had been caused by ageing, seasonal moisture, thermal expansion and contraction and inadequate restraining of the masonry due to the building methods of the era.

The Structural Repair Solution

Traditional building methods would have required major deconstruction and rebuilding works. AWTs advanced methods allowed the property to be repaired with only one brick pillar requiring rebuilding. This saved the property owner from long, disruptive building works. The property was able to be occupied throughout the repair works. AWT provided a long-lasting, cost-effective structural repair.

reconstructed bay - Bay Window with Severe Deterioration

Temporary supports were installed to the underside of the ground floor bay window lintels and capital to enable the removal of the right hand column up to the stone capital and the cracked distorted brick corner below the cill.

Stainless steel corded joint reinforcements were installed to form a deep masonry beam. This redistributes the upper-storey loads and restrains diagonal cracking and bulging tendencies.

The bay window brickwork was reconnected to the main brickwork by the installation of remedial grouted helical bars. An angled steel spine reinforcing with welded ties to restrain the rebuilt brickwork column was fabricated and installed. The brickwork column was realigned and rebuilt with all new bricks.

New stainless steel remedial ties were screwed and resin bonded in place to connect the timber frame to the masonry. Steel pins were installed to stitch the brick arches above the rear windows to restore structural integrity.

The stone front step and other stonework had damaged areas cut away and repaired with Flexcrete concrete repair system. Damaged bricks were refaced where possible, badly damaged bricks were replaced and failing pointing was raked out and replaced.

The replacement bricks, pointing style and mortar mixture were matched for both texture and colour. The property was left ready for the stonework to be repainted.

Read our frequently asked questions about bay window structural repairs.

Action Wall Ties (AWT) are specialists in masonry reinforcement and repair, including urgent masonry stabilisation and repair. We provide professional solutions to a wide variety of structural problems for homeowners in London, Kent, Surrey and Sussex. Contact us on 01227 721 255, or email us.

Bed Joint Reinforcement Beaming

Bed Joint Reinforcement Beaming

Victorian property in Hampstead, NW3. Three-storey bay windows with pulling away outward movement, dropping brickwork (all with previous failing repairs) and bowing side flank wall. Repaired using bed joint reinforcement beaming, lateral restraints, crack stitching, and resin bonded ties.

case study 56e199d5b84726.15696458 - Bed Joint Reinforcement Beaming

The subject building was a substantial Victorian end-of-terrace domestic residence in North West London.

Structural Problems

Outward movement to the gable wall, patress plates and tie bars were noted, which indicated that a previous attempt to restrain the outward movement had been made. No significant cracking was noted. Also, a steel band to the front bay window on the first and second floors was found to be heavily corroded and delaminating.

Causation

The movement noted is progressive, attributable to historic subsidence (downward movement) compounded by outward movement due to ineffective or inadequate restraining to the main elevational walls and the bay window, allowing the brick arch to spread and drop and the brickwork above to crack.

debonded brickwork bulges 1.3 - Bed Joint Reinforcement Beaming

Structural Solutions

AWT’s remedial scheme was to introduce bed joint reinforcement beaming, lateral restraints, crack stitching and resin bonded ties – adding tensile strength and restraint and thus reinstating the brickwork’s integrity and the uniformity of the wall.

After installation, pointing was raked out, reinstated and tinted to match the existing (see coloured remedial works on our proposal picture).

case 5 a - Bed Joint Reinforcement Beaming

case 5 b - Bed Joint Reinforcement Beaming

1. Bed joint reinforcement:
The introduction of two rows of twin cord reinforcement, forming a deep masonry beam – as indicated with red double dotted lines on our proposal images.

2. Lateral restraints:
In conjunction with the beam, 8mm stainless steel lateral restraints were introduced and screwed directly into the timber floor joists’ end grain or into the side grain, all resin bonded to the masonry – as indicated with yellow stars on our proposal images.

3. Crack stitching:
To stitch localised cracks, single 8mm stainless steel corded joint reinforcements were introduced – as indicated with red single dotted lines on our proposal images.

4. Wall ties to de-bonding brickwork:
Wherever possible, we drilled for and resin bonded 6mm stainless steel remedial ties to the centre of a brick. We then re-pointed the disturbed areas with a coloured sand and cement mixture – as indicated with blue line on our proposal plan images.

5. Making good and pointing:
We then raked out the existing mortar and repaired with new coloured sand and cement mortar to approximately 20mm in depth.

AWT operatives are highly skilled in traditional building methods and always attempt to match replacement bricks, pointing styles and mortar colour to be sympathetic with the existing building.

High Quality Structural Repairs

The photo below shows the completed structural repairs 14 years after the project was completed. Unlike the previous repairs by traditional builders, AWT’s structural repair techniques got to the root of the problem.

AWT provide long lasting, cost effective structural repairs so you can enjoy your home.

Bed joint beaming - Bed Joint Reinforcement Beaming

Read our frequently asked questions about bay window structural repairs.

Action Wall Ties (AWT) based in Kent are specialists in masonry reinforcement and repair covering London, Kent and the whole South East area. AWT provide professional solutions to a wide variety of structural problems. Contact us on 01227 721 255, or email us.

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