The building was a substantial Victorian traditionally built semi-detached domestic residence spread over three floors.
The flank wall had a significant visible bulge from the centre of the wall at first floor level. No significant cracking was noted. The third floor (top level) appears to have been rebuilt.
The movement noted was considered to be progressive, due to some downward movement compounded by ineffective or inadequate restraining.
The bulge may have been formed by some de-bonding of the brickwork (or cracking of the headers). It was common practice in buildings of this age for a 9 inch wall to be constructed as two half-brick walls with snapped headers to the external skin to save on expensive facing bricks.
AWT's Remedial scheme involved the introduction of bed joint reinforcement, lateral restraints and resin bonded ties, adding tensile strength and thus reinstating the brickwork’s integrity and the uniformity of the wall. After installation, pointing was raked out, reinstated and tinted to match the existing (see coloured remedial works on our proposal picture).
1. Bed joint reinforcement:
Introduced two rows of twin cord reinforcement, forming a deep masonry beam – indicated by red double dotted lines on our proposal images.
2. Lateral restraints:
In conjunction with the beam, 8mm stainless steel lateral restraints were introduced and screwed directly into timber floor joists’ end grain or into the side grain, all resin bonded to the masonry – indicated with yellow stars on our proposal images.
3. Wall ties to de-bonding brickwork:
Wherever possible to the centre of a brick, drilled for and resin bonded new 6mm stainless steel remedial ties. Re-pointed disturbed areas only with coloured sand and cement mixture – indicated with blue lines on our proposal images.